StrainHelicobacter pylori P12
Repliconchromosome [Browse all T4SS(s) in this replicon]
Functioneffector translocation
ClassificationType IVA; Type P
experimental Experimental investigation has been performed on this T4SS.

T4SS components

The information of T4SS components from NC_011498
#Locus tag (Gene)Coordinates [+/-], size (bp)Protein GIProductComponent
1HPP12_0523 (era)549537..550442 [+], 906210134718GTP-binding protein Era 
2HPP12_0524550439..551431 [+], 993210134719hypothetical protein 
3HPP12_0525551520..552374 [-], 855210134720hypothetical protein 
4HPP12_0526552393..552584 [+], 192210134721hypothetical protein 
5HPP12_0527 (cag1)552705..553052 [+], 348210134722cag pathogenicity island protein Zeta 
6HPP12_0528 (cag2)553160..553525 [+], 366210134723cag pathogenicity island protein Epsilon 
7HPP12_0529 (cag3)553525..554970 [+], 1446210134724cag pathogenicity island protein Delta  Cagdelta
8HPP12_0530 (cag4)554980..555489 [+], 510210134725cag pathogenicity island protein Gamma  Caggamma
9HPP12_0531 (cag5)555963..558209 [-], 2247210134726cag pathogenicity island protein Beta  Cagbeta
10HPP12_0532 (virB11-2)558218..559210 [-], 993210134727cag pathogenicity island protein Alpha  Cagalpha
11HPP12_0533 (cagZ)559215..559814 [-], 600210134728cag pathogenicity island protein Z  CagZ
12HPP12_0534 (cagY)559964..565669 [-], 5706210134729cag pathogenicity island protein Y VirB10-like protein  CagYinteraction
13HPP12_0535 (cagX)565684..567252 [-], 1569210134730cag pathogenicity island protein X VirB9-like protein  CagX
14HPP12_0536 (cagW)567305..568912 [-], 1608210134731cag pathogenicity island protein W  CagW
15HPP12_0537 (cagV)568917..569675 [-], 759210134732cag pathogenicity island protein V  CagV
16HPP12_0538 (cagU)570070..570720 [+], 651210134733cag pathogenicity island protein U  CagU
17HPP12_0539 (cagT)570733..571575 [+], 843210134734cag pathogenicity island protein T  CagT
18HPP12_0540 (cagS)571777..572376 [-], 600210134735cag pathogenicity island protein S 
19HPP12_0541 (cagQ)572815..573195 [-], 381210134736cag pathogenicity island protein Q 
20HPP12_0542 (cagR)572903..573205 [+], 303210134737cag pathogenicity island protein R 
21HPP12_0543 (cagP)573621..573974 [-], 354210134738cag pathogenicity island protein P 
22HPP12_0544 (cagM)574409..575539 [+], 1131210134739cag pathogenicity island protein M  CagM
23HPP12_0545 (cagN)575554..576474 [+], 921210134740cag pathogenicity island protein N  CagN
24HPP12_0546 (cagL)576555..577268 [-], 714210134741cag pathogenicity island protein L  CagLinteraction
25HPP12_0547 (cagI)577265..578410 [-], 1146210134742cag pathogenicity island protein I  CagI
26HPP12_0548 (cagH)578421..579533 [-], 1113210134743cag pathogenicity island protein H  CagH
27HPP12_0549 (cagG)579550..579978 [-], 429210134744cag pathogenicity island protein G  CagG
28HPP12_0550 (cagF)580037..580843 [-], 807210134745cag pathogenicity island protein F  CagFaccesspry protein
29HPP12_0551 (cagE)580845..583796 [-], 2952210134746cag pathogenicity island protein E VirB4-like protein  CagE
30HPP12_0552 (cagD)583805..584428 [-], 624210134747cag pathogenicity island protein D  CagD
31HPP12_0553 (cagC)584430..584777 [-], 348210134748cag pathogenicity island protein C  CagC
32HPP12_0554 (cagB)584923..585150 [-], 228210134749cag pathogenicity island protein B 
33HPP12_0555 (cagA)585581..589225 [+], 3645210134750cytotoxin-associated protein A  interaction
accesspry protein This T4SS contains information of accessory protein.
interaction This T4SS contains information of interaction.
flank Genes in the 5-Kb flanking regions if available, or non-essential genes in the T4SS gene cluster if any.

Download FASTA format files
Proteins        Genes

CagA; Peptidoglycan

The information of protein effectors
#Locus tag (Gene)Coordinates [+/-], size (bp)Protein GIProduct  *
1HPP12_0555 (cagA)585581..589225 [+], 3645210134750cytotoxin-associated protein Aexperimental  CagAinteraction
experimental T4SE derived from experimental literature.
interaction This effector contains information of interaction.

Download FASTA format files
Proteins        Genes
The information on requirements for T4SS substrate-channel docking

Certain T4SS substrates require secretion chaperones for translocation. These chaperones often possess physical properties (small size of 15 kDa, acidic pI, and amphipathic helices) resembling those of chaperones associated with the type III secretion systems, a family of macromolecular translocation systems ancestrally related to bacterial flagella.

#Accessory protein(GI)motif(s)Substrate(s)FunctionReference
1CagF (chaperone) (210134745)CT20aa and an intact N terminusCagAThe CagA-binding protein CagF is a secretion chaperone-like protein that interacts with a 100 aa region that is adjacent to the C-terminal secretion signal of CagA.CagF is a translocation factor for CagA, but is not translocated by the type IV apparatus.(1) PubMed: 17768234
1.Substrate(s): For the conjugation systems, the listed proteins are relaxases that bind a cognate T4CP and are delivered to recipient cells. For the effector translocator systems, the listed proteins are effectors that play a role in the infection processes of the bacterial pathogen.
2.motif(s):The motifs listed are required for substrate translocation. In some cases, the protein or its C-terminal fragment (CT) is sufficient to mediate translocation to target cells, as shown by fusion to a reporter protein such as Cre recombinase or adenylate cyclase. Amino acids (aa) at positions listed relative to the C-terminal fragment (subscript) are required for translocation, as shown by mutational analysis. ND, not determined. Parentheses indicate that the interaction between a protein substrate and a cognate T4CP has been experimentally shown.
3.Accessory protein: Accessory factors required for T4SS channel docking or translocation. The proposed function in mediating substrate-T4SS channel docking is shown in parentheses.PubMed:19946141

(1) Pattis I; Weiss E; Laugks R; Haas R; Fischer W (2007). The Helicobacter pylori CagF protein is a type IV secretion chaperone-like molecule that binds close to the C-terminal secretion signal of the CagA effector protein. Microbiology. 153(Pt 9):2896-909. [PudMed:17768234] experimental
The information on host-pathogen interaction.

#Name(Protein GI)Host site/SubstrateSourceFunctionReference
1CagA (210134750)SHP-2humanCagA is translocated into gastric epithelial cells. It physically interacts with SHP-2 to modify cellular functions and perturb mammalian signal transduction machineries. This may induce gastric epithelial cells to move and proliferate abnormally and help to acquire a cellular transformed phenotype.(1) PubMed: 11743164insolico
2CagA (210134750)growth factor receptor bound 2 (Grb2)unknownCagA targets to Grb2 and this process leads to activing the MEK/ERK pathway and results in cell scattering and proliferation.(2) PubMed: 12419219insolico
3CagA (210134750)PAR1/MARK kinasehumanCagA interacts with PAR1/MARK kinase to inhibit the activity of PAR1 kinase and prevent PAR1 phosphorylation which mediated by atypical protein kinase C (aPKC).(3) PubMed: 17507984insolico
4CagA (210134750)Apoptosis-stimulating of p53 protein 2 (ASPP2)humanASPP2 is a tumor suppressor that activates the apoptotic response upon cellular stress which mediated by p53. CagA interacts with ASPP2 to change the function of ASPP2 and this process leads to the decreased survival of cells which infected by H. pylori.(4) PubMed: 24474782insolico
5CagA (210134750)protein kinase C-related kinase 2 (PRK2)humanCagA represses kinase activity of PRK2, which has been involved in establishment of cell polarity and rearrangements of cytoskeleton, to further control signalling pathways associated with cancer.(5) PubMed: 26041307insolico
6CagA (210134750)Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3)humanCagA interacts with GSK-3 to reduce its activity by cause it to transform into an insoluble fraction. CagA then induce a epithelial mesenchymal transition mediated by Snail via the comsuming of GSK-3.(6) PubMed: 25055241insolico
7CagA (210134750)c-MethumanCagA interacts with the c-Met receptor to modulates cellular functions through deregulating c-Met receptor signaling and participates in invasive growth of tumor cells.(7) PubMed: 12719469insolico
8CagA (210134750)E-cadherinhumanCagA interacts with E-cadherin to impair the complex formation between E-cadherin and beta-catenin and facilitate transdifferentiation of intestines in gastric epithelial cells.(8) PubMed: 17237808insolico
9CagA (210134750)host membrane phosphatidylserineunknownCagA can be tethered to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane by interacting with phosphatidylserine. Then it binds the PAR1/MARK to induce polarity and junctional defects.(9) PubMed: 20478541insolico
10CagA (210134750)c-Abl tyrosine kinasehumanCagA targets to c-Abl directly and localizes in focal adhesion complexes and membrane ruffles.(10) PubMed: 17160020experimental
11CagA (210134750)αPixhumanCagA interacted with αPix to activates PAK1, ERK and NF-kappaB after being delivered into AGS cells. Then it induces the expression of IL-8 in infected gastric epithelial cells.(11) PubMed: 19672789insolico
12CagA (210134750)scaffolding protein ZO-1human, canineCagA interacts with epithelial tight-junction ZO-1 and the transmembrane protein junctional adhesion molecule to change the function and composition of the apical-junctional complex.(12) PubMed: 12775840insolico
13CagA (210134750)integrin α5β1 receptorhumanCagA binds interface with α5β1 integrin.It is an essential step for the translocation process of CagA into the host cell.(13) PubMed: 22908298insolico
14CagA (210134750)TNF receptor-associated factor 1 and 4-1BB (TRAF1 and 4-1BB)humanCagA facilitates the proliferation and represses the apoptosis of GES-1 cells by upregulated TRAF1/4-1BB.(14) PubMed: 28627614insolico
15CagA (210134750)Adapter molecule crkhumanThe interaction between CagA and Crk adaptor proteins is important for loss of gastric epithelial cell adhesion induced by Helicobacter pylori-induced Helicobacter pylori.(15) PubMed: 16275761insolico
16CagA (210134750)SHP-1humanCagA interacts with SHP1 to enhance the phosphatase activity of SHP1 so that it dampens the oncogenic action of CagA.(16) PubMed: 27572445insolico
17CagA (210134750)Transforming growth factor-beta-activated kinase 1 (TAK1)humanCagA interacts with TAK1 and improves its activity to activate NF-kappaB through the ubiquitination of TAK1.(17) PubMed: 19820695insolico
18CagA (210134750)Myeloid cell leukemia sequence-1 (MCL1)mongolian gerbilCagA increases MCL1 thorough the interaction between SRE/SRF and CagA/MCL1 in modulating rapid turnover of pit epithelial cells via MEK/ERK/SRE activation.(18) PubMed: 18005743insolico
19CagL (210134741)integrin α5β1 receptorhumanCagL, which is targeted to the pilus surface, is a specialized adhesin. It binds to and activates integrin α5β1 receptor on gastric epithelial cells. This interaction triggers CagA delivery into target cells.(19) PubMed: 17943123experimental
20CagL (210134741)integrin αvβ3humanHost cell docking of T4SS.(20) PubMed: 21915696insolico
21CagL (210134741)integrin αvβ5humanCagL/integrin β5 signalling complex is important for gastrin expression induced by H. pylori.(21) PubMed: 22287591insolico
22CagL (210134741)integrin αvβ6humanαvβ6 is a specific, high affinity receptor for CagL.(22) PubMed: 31197920experimental
23CagY (210134729)integrin α5β1 receptorhumanCagY interacts with α5β1 integrin, which acts like a molecular rheostat that modulates the host immune response to facilitate persistent infection.(23) PubMed: 29764950insolico
experimental This T4SE is mentioned in the literature.
insolico This T4SE is highly identical with the protein mentioned in the literature.
(1) Higashi H et al. (2002). SHP-2 tyrosine phosphatase as an intracellular target of Helicobacter pylori CagA protein. Science. 295(5555):683-6. [PudMed:11743164] experimental
(2) Mimuro H et al. (2002). Grb2 is a key mediator of helicobacter pylori CagA protein activities. Mol Cell. 10(4):745-55. [PudMed:12419219] experimental
(3) Saadat I et al. (2007). Helicobacter pylori CagA targets PAR1/MARK kinase to disrupt epithelial cell polarity. Nature. 447(7142):330-3. [PudMed:17507984] experimental
(4) Nešić D et al. (2014). Structure of the Helicobacter pylori CagA oncoprotein bound to the human tumor suppressor ASPP2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 111(4):1562-7. [PudMed:24474782] experimental
(5) Mishra JP et al. (2015). CagA of Helicobacter pylori interacts with and inhibits the serine-threonine kinase PRK2. Cell Microbiol. 17(11):1670-82. [PudMed:26041307] experimental
(6) Lee DG et al. (2014). Helicobacter pylori CagA promotes Snail-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition by reducing GSK-3 activity. Nat Commun. 5:4423. [PudMed:25055241] experimental
(7) Churin Y et al. (2003). Helicobacter pylori CagA protein targets the c-Met receptor and enhances the motogenic response. J Cell Biol. 161(2):249-55. [PudMed:12719469] experimental
(8) Murata-Kamiya N et al. (2007). Helicobacter pylori CagA interacts with E-cadherin and deregulates the beta-catenin signal that promotes intestinal transdifferentiation in gastric epithelial cells. Oncogene. 26(32):4617-26. [PudMed:17237808] experimental
(9) Murata-Kamiya N; Kikuchi K; Hayashi T; Higashi H; Hatakeyama M (2010). Helicobacter pylori exploits host membrane phosphatidylserine for delivery, localization, and pathophysiological action of the CagA oncoprotein. Cell Host Microbe. 7(5):399-411. [PudMed:20478541] experimental
(10) Poppe M; Feller SM; Romer G; Wessler S (2007). Phosphorylation of Helicobacter pylori CagA by c-Abl leads to cell motility. Oncogene. 26(24):3462-72. [PudMed:17160020] experimental
(11) Lim JW et al. (2009). alphaPix interacts with Helicobacter pylori CagA to induce IL-8 expression in gastric epithelial cells. Scand J Gastroenterol. 44(10):1166-72. [PudMed:19672789] experimental
(12) Amieva MR et al. (2003). Disruption of the epithelial apical-junctional complex by Helicobacter pylori CagA. Science. 300(5624):1430-4. [PudMed:12775840] experimental
(13) Kaplan-Türköz B et al. (2012). Structural insights into Helicobacter pylori oncoprotein CagA interaction with β1 integrin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 109(36):14640-5. [PudMed:22908298] experimental
(14) Wang F et al. (2017). CagA promotes proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of GES-1 cells by upregulating TRAF1/4-1BB. Mol Med Rep. 16(2):1262-1268. [PudMed:28627614] experimental
(15) Suzuki M et al. (2005). Interaction of CagA with Crk plays an important role in Helicobacter pylori-induced loss of gastric epithelial cell adhesion. J Exp Med. 202(9):1235-47. [PudMed:16275761] experimental
(16) Saju P et al. (2016). Host SHP1 phosphatase antagonizes Helicobacter pylori CagA and can be downregulated by Epstein-Barr virus. Nat Microbiol. 1:16026. [PudMed:27572445] experimental
(17) Lamb A et al. (2009). Helicobacter pylori CagA activates NF-kappaB by targeting TAK1 for TRAF6-mediated Lys 63 ubiquitination. EMBO Rep. 10(11):1242-9. [PudMed:19820695] experimental
(18) Mimuro H et al. (2007). Helicobacter pylori dampens gut epithelial self-renewal by inhibiting apoptosis, a bacterial strategy to enhance colonization of the stomach. Cell Host Microbe. 2(4):250-63. [PudMed:18005743] experimental
(19) Kwok T; Zabler D; Urman S; Rohde M; Hartig R; Wessler S; Misselwitz R; Berger J; Sewald N; Konig W; Backert S (2007). Helicobacter exploits integrin for type IV secretion and kinase activation. Nature. 449(7164):862-6. [PudMed:17943123] experimental
(20) Conradi J; Huber S; Gaus K; Mertink F; Royo Gracia S; Strijowski U; Backert S; Sewald N (2012). Cyclic RGD peptides interfere with binding of the Helicobacter pylori protein CagL to integrins alpha(V)beta (3) and alpha (5)beta (1). Amino Acids. 43(1):219-32. [PudMed:21915696] experimental
(21) Wiedemann T et al. (2012). Helicobacter pylori CagL dependent induction of gastrin expression via a novel αvβ5-integrin-integrin linked kinase signalling complex. Gut. 61(7):986-96. [PudMed:22287591] experimental
(22) Buß M et al. (2019). Specific high affinity interaction of Helicobacter pylori CagL with integrin αV β6 promotes type IV secretion of CagA into human cells. FEBS J. . [PudMed:31197920] experimental
(23) Skoog EC et al. (2018). CagY-Dependent Regulation of Type IV Secretion in Helicobacter pylori Is Associated with Alterations in Integrin Binding. MBio. 9(3). pii: e00717-18. [PudMed:29764950] experimental
(1) You Y; He L; Zhang M; Fu J; Gu Y; Zhang B; Tao X; Zhang J (2012). Comparative Genomics of Helicobacter pylori Strains of China Associated with Different Clinical Outcome. PLoS One. 7(6):e38528. [PudMed:22701658] experimental in_silico
(2) Koch M; Mollenkopf HJ; Klemm U; Meyer TF (2012). Induction of microRNA-155 is TLR- and type IV secretion system-dependent in macrophages and inhibits DNA-damage induced apoptosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 109(19):E1153-62. [PudMed:22509021]
(3) Pham KT; Weiss E; Jimenez Soto LF; Breithaupt U; Haas R; Fischer W (2012). CagI is an essential component of the Helicobacter pylori Cag type IV secretion system and forms a complex with CagL. PLoS One. 7(4):e35341. [PudMed:22493745] experimental
(4) Jimenez-Soto LF; Rohrer S; Jain U; Ertl C; Sewald X; Haas R (2012). Effects of cholesterol on Helicobacter pylori growth and virulence properties in vitro. Helicobacter. 17(2):133-9. [PudMed:22404444] experimental
(5) Backert S; Clyne M; Tegtmeyer N (2011). Molecular mechanisms of gastric epithelial cell adhesion and injection of CagA by Helicobacter pylori. Cell Commun Signal. 9:28. [PudMed:22044679]
(6) Kumar Pachathundikandi S; Brandt S; Madassery J; Backert S (2011). Induction of TLR-2 and TLR-5 expression by Helicobacter pylori switches cagPAI-dependent signalling leading to the secretion of IL-8 and TNF-alpha. PLoS One. 6(5):e19614. [PudMed:21573018] experimental
(7) Schneider S; Carra G; Sahin U; Hoy B; Rieder G; Wessler S (2011). Complex cellular responses of Helicobacter pylori-colonized gastric adenocarcinoma cells. Infect Immun. 79(6):2362-71. [PudMed:21402757] experimental
(8) Tegtmeyer N; Backert S (2011). Role of Abl and Src family kinases in actin-cytoskeletal rearrangements induced by the Helicobacter pylori CagA protein. Eur J Cell Biol. 90(11):880-90. [PudMed:21247656]
(9) Fischer W; Windhager L; Rohrer S; Zeiller M; Karnholz A; Hoffmann R; Zimmer R; Haas R (2010). Strain-specific genes of Helicobacter pylori: genome evolution driven by a novel type IV secretion system and genomic island transfer. Nucleic Acids Res. 38(18):6089-101. [PudMed:20478826] experimental in_silico
(10) Saha A; Backert S; Hammond CE; Gooz M; Smolka AJ (2010). Helicobacter pylori CagL activates ADAM17 to induce repression of the gastric H, K-ATPase alpha subunit. Gastroenterology. 139(1):239-48. [PudMed:20303353] experimental
(11) Fehri LF; Rechner C; Janssen S; Mak TN; Holland C; Bartfeld S; Bruggemann H; Meyer TF (2009). Helicobacter pylori-induced modification of the histone H3 phosphorylation status in gastric epithelial cells reflects its impact on cell cycle regulation. Epigenetics. 4(8):577-86. [PudMed:20081355] experimental
(12) Jimenez-Soto LF; Kutter S; Sewald X; Ertl C; Weiss E; Kapp U; Rohde M; Pirch T; Jung K; Retta SF; Terradot L; Fischer W; Haas R (2009). Helicobacter pylori type IV secretion apparatus exploits beta1 integrin in a novel RGD-independent manner. PLoS Pathog. 5(12):e1000684. [PudMed:19997503] experimental
(13) Brandt S; Wessler S; Hartig R; Backert S (2009). Helicobacter pylori activates protein kinase C delta to control Raf in MAP kinase signalling: role in AGS epithelial cell scattering and elongation. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 66(10):874-92. [PudMed:19437514] experimental
(14) Svensson H; Hansson M; Kilhamn J; Backert S; Quiding-Jarbrink M (2009). Selective upregulation of endothelial E-selectin in response to Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis. Infect Immun. 77(7):3109-16. [PudMed:19414551] experimental
(15) Hare S; Fischer W; Williams R; Terradot L; Bayliss R; Haas R; Waksman G (2007). Identification, structure and mode of action of a new regulator of the Helicobacter pylori HP0525 ATPase. EMBO J. 26(23):4926-34. [PudMed:17972918] experimental
(16) Kwok T; Zabler D; Urman S; Rohde M; Hartig R; Wessler S; Misselwitz R; Berger J; Sewald N; Konig W; Backert S (2007). Helicobacter exploits integrin for type IV secretion and kinase activation. Nature. 449(7164):862-6. [PudMed:17943123] experimental
(17) Pattis I; Weiss E; Laugks R; Haas R; Fischer W (2007). The Helicobacter pylori CagF protein is a type IV secretion chaperone-like molecule that binds close to the C-terminal secretion signal of the CagA effector protein. Microbiology. 153(Pt 9):2896-909. [PudMed:17768234] experimental
(18) Poppe M; Feller SM; Romer G; Wessler S (2007). Phosphorylation of Helicobacter pylori CagA by c-Abl leads to cell motility. Oncogene. 26(24):3462-72. [PudMed:17160020] experimental
(19) Garcia JT; Ferracci F; Jackson MW; Joseph SS; Pattis I; Plano LR; Fischer W; Plano GV (2006). Measurement of effector protein injection by type III and type IV secretion systems by using a 13-residue phosphorylatable glycogen synthase kinase tag. Infect Immun. 74(10):5645-57. [PudMed:16988240] experimental
(20) Backert S; Kwok T; Konig W (2005). Conjugative plasmid DNA transfer in Helicobacter pylori mediated by chromosomally encoded relaxase and TraG-like proteins. Microbiology. 151(Pt 11):3493-503. [PudMed:16272373] experimental
(21) Bauer B; Moese S; Bartfeld S; Meyer TF; Selbach M (2005). Analysis of cell type-specific responses mediated by the type IV secretion system of Helicobacter pylori. Infect Immun. 73(8):4643-52. [PudMed:16040977] experimental
(22) Wessler S; Rapp UR; Wiedenmann B; Meyer TF; Schoneberg T; Hocker M; Naumann M (2002). B-Raf/Rap1 signaling, but not c-Raf-1/Ras, induces the histidine decarboxylase promoter in Helicobacter pylori infection. FASEB J. 16(3):417-9. [PudMed:11790728] experimental
(23) Churin Y; Kardalinou E; Meyer TF; Naumann M (2001). Pathogenicity island-dependent activation of Rho GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42 in Helicobacter pylori infection. Mol Microbiol. 40(4):815-23. [PudMed:11401689] experimental
(24) Stein M; Rappuoli R; Covacci A; Blanke SR; Ye D; Odenbreit S; Gebert B; Puls J; Fischer W; Haas R (2001). Interaction of Helicobacter pylori with professional phagocytes: role of the cag pathogenicity island and translocation, phosphorylation and processing of CagA. Cell Microbiol. 3(1):21-31. [PudMed:11207617] experimental
(25) Ramarao N; Gray-Owen SD; Backert S; Meyer TF (2000). Helicobacter pylori inhibits phagocytosis by professional phagocytes involving type IV secretion components. Mol Microbiol. 37(6):1389-404. [PudMed:10998171] experimental
(26) Odenbreit S; Puls J; Sedlmaier B; Gerland E; Fischer W; Haas R (2000). Translocation of Helicobacter pylori CagA into gastric epithelial cells by type IV secretion. Science. 287(5457):1497-500. [PudMed:10688800] experimental
experimental This literature contains experimental investigation
in_silico This literature contains bioinformatics investigation